Pakistan Manufactured Aircraft Lead Country's Defense Exports

Air forces of about a dozen developing nations are buying and deploying Pakistani made aircrafts. The reasons for their choice of Pakistan manufactured airplanes range from lower cost to ease of acquisition, maintenance and training.

Pakistan's Aircraft Exports:

Pakistan started developing defense hardware for imports substitution to reduce external dependence and to save hard currency. Now the country's defense industry is coming of age to lead the way to high value-added manufactured exports.

Pakistan Super Mushshak Trainer Aircraft
Nigerian Air Force is the latest to announce purchase of Pakistan made Super Mushshak aircraft after the United States' refusal to sell to Nigeria, according to American periodical Newsweek.  Nigerian Air Force chief Air Marshal Sadique Abubakar was quoted by the Nigerian media as saying that "Pakistan has accepted to sell ten trainer airplanes. And that is why the Pakistan Chief of Air Staff is coming for the induction ceremony which is going to take place in Kaduna".

Several other countries are in the process of making decisions to purchase aircraft from Pakistan. A report in Pakistan's Express Tribune newspaper says that Turkey has decided to buy 52 Super Mushshak trainer aircraft.  The Tribune also reported that Azerbaijan may buy a couple of dozen JF-17 Thunder fighter jets jointly developed by Pakistan and China.

Along with exporting existing hardware, Pakistan is continuing its efforts to enhance the capabilities with new versions. For example, fighter-jet JF-17’s Block III is expected to open up new opportunities for Pakistani defense exports.

The new JF-17 Block III will be a twin-seat trainer version with advanced Active Electronically-Scanned Array radar and mid-air-refueliling probe. It will use new composite materials to increase its performance, besides addition of other updates in cockpit and weapons’ pods, according to Pakistani media reports.

Pakistan-China Defense Industry Collaboration:

Growing defense collaboration between China and Pakistan irks the West, according to a report in the UK's Financial Times newspaper.  The paper specifically cites joint JF-17 Thunder fighter jet, armed drone Burraq and custom AIP-equipped submarines as examples of close cooperation between the two nations.

Pakistan's JF-17 Jet Fighter
Pakistan's bitter experience with the unreliability of its cold war allies as weapons suppliers has proved to be a blessing in disguise. It has forced Pakistan to move toward self-reliance in production of the weapons it needs to defend itself from foreign and domestic enemies.

It all started back in 1965 when the US and its western allies placed an arms embargo on Pakistan during war with India. The bitterness grew stronger when the US forced France to cancel its contract to supply a breeder reactor to Pakistan in 1974 soon after India conducted its first nuclear test.

Khushab Nuclear Reactor:

Fortunately for Pakistan, the French had already given Pakistanis scientists drawings and specifications before canceling the breeder reactor contract. Work on Khushab reprocessing plant stated in 1974 when Pakistan signed a contract with the French company Saint-Gobain Techniques Nouvelles (SGN). In 1978, under U.S. pressure, France canceled the contract. Pakistan then proceeded to indigenously produce its own nuclear breeder reactors at Khushab. Four such reactors are now operating to produce plutonium for Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. Having done its first nuclear test in 1998, Pakistan now has a large and growing nuclear arsenal it needs to deter any enemy adventurism against it.

Babar Cruise Missile:

Since MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime) prevented Pakistan from acquiring delivery vehicles from other countries, the country had to develop its own ballistic and cruise missiles to carry nuclear weapons.

The story of Babar Cruise Missile development is particularly interesting. It is believed that Pakistani engineers learned the technology by dismantling and studying a US Tomahawk cruise missile that fell in Pakistani territory when President Bill Clinton fired these missiles to target Al Qaeda in Afghanistan.

JF-17 Thunder Fighter:

The development of JF-17, a modern highly capable and relatively inexpensive fighter jet, is the crowning achievement to-date of the Pakistan-China defense production cooperation. It's being deployed by Pakistan Air Force with Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) on recently rolling out the 16th Block 2 JF-17 aircraft for PAF's 4th squadron. The latest version is capable of launching a variety of nuclear and conventional weapons ranging from smart bombs and air-launched cruise missile Raad to anti-ship missiles.

Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) got its start decades ago by setting up maintenance facilities for advanced fighters like French Mirage and US F-16s and by manufacturing Mushshak and Super Mushshak trainer aircraft. It is now also building JF-17s as well as a variety of drones, including combat UAV Burraq being used in Pakistan's war against militants in Waziristan.

Nuclear-Capable AIP Submarines:

Pakistan is expanding and modernizing its underwater fleet with 8 additional AIP-equipped submarines. Four of these subs will be manufactured in Pakistan.  These will reportedly be custom versions of Yuan class diesel-electric subs with additional wider tubes from which cruise missiles can be launched. A key requirement for  these submarines is to be stealthy—and the AIP-equipped Yuan class is indeed very quiet. The trick is in the submarine’s air-independent propulsion fuel cells, which provide power under the surface as the diesel engines—used for running on the surface—rest and recharge. Though relatively limited in range, this system is quieter than the nuclear-powered engines on American and Russian submarines, which must constantly circulate engine coolant.


Arms as Pakistan's Cottage Industry

Pakistan has a long history of arms manufacturing as a cottage industry. The dusty little town of Darra Adam Khel, only a half-hour drive from Peshawar, reminds visitors of America's Wild West. The craftsmen of this town are manufacturers and suppliers of small arms to the tribal residents of the nation's Federally Administered Tribal Areas who carry weapons as part of their ancient culture. The skilled craftsmen of FATA make revolvers, automatic pistols, shotguns and AK-47 rifles. Until five years ago, the list also had items such as anti-personnel mines, sub-machine guns, small cannons and even rocket launchers. Pakistani government has forced the tribesmen to stop making heavy assault weapons to try and prevent the Taliban and Al Qaeda from getting access to such weapons.

Pakistan's arms industry has come a long way from making small arms as a cottage industry in the last few decades. The US and Western arms embargoes imposed on Pakistan at critical moments in its history have proved to be a blessing in disguise. In particular, the problems Pakistan faced in the aftermath of Pressler Amendment in 1992 became an opportunity for the country to rely on indigenous development and production of defense equipment.

Pakistan's Military Industrial Complex

The country now boasts a powerful industrial, technological and research base developing and manufacturing for its armed forces a wide variety of small and large weapons ranging from modern fighter jets, battle tanks, armored vehicles, frigates and submarines to armed and unarmed aerial vehicles and high tech firearms and personal grenade launchers for urban combat. Some of these items were on display at IDEAS 2014, the 5-day biennial arms show held November 2014 in Karachi, Pakistan.

Summary: 

A country can not be truly independent unless it can manufacture the arms it needs to defend itself. Pakistan is just starting to build the weapons it needs but it has a very long way to go.  At the same time, Pakistan is starting to export defense hardware to developing nations.  This goal can only be achieved if Pakistan develops significant human capital and builds a vibrant economy.

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Pakistan-China Defense Industry Collaboration Irks West

Pakistan Navy Modernization

IDEAS 2014 Arms Show

Pakistan Defense Industry

Silicon Valley Book Launch of "Eating Grass"

Pakistan's Human Capital

Pakistan Economy Nears Trillion Dollars

Pakistan's Sea-Based Second Strike Capability

Comments

Riaz Haq said…
#Pakistan conducts successful test of 700 kilometer range Babur cruise #missile to hit targets on land and sea

http://www.dawn.com/news/1302318/pakistan-conducts-successful-test-of-babur-cruise-missile

Pakistan on Wednesday conducted a successful test of an enhanced version of the indigenously developed Babur cruise missile., said a statement released from the Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR).

The cruise missile incorporates advanced aerodynamics and avionics and can strike targets on both land and sea at a range of 700 kilometres, added the ISPR statement.

“It is a low flying, terrain hugging missile, which carries certain stealth features and is capable of carrying various types of warheads,” the military’s media wing said.

The Babur cruise missile is equipped with state of the art navigational technologies of Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) and Digital Scene Matching and Area Co-relation (DSMAC), which enables it to hit targets with pinpoint accuracy even in the absence of GPS navigation.

“Babur Weapon System is an important force multiplier for Pakistan’s strategic defence.”

The launch was witnessed by Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Zubair Mahmood Hayat, senior officers from the Strategic Plans Division, Strategic Forces, scientists and engineers of strategic organisations.

“This test further strengthens Pakistan’s deterrence capability,” said General Hayat.

Earlier this year, Pakistan conducted a successful flight test of the indigenously developed Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) Ra’ad.

Riaz Haq said…
#China to set up large steel plant at #Gwadar, #Pakistan: Chinese Envoy. #CPEC http://www.app.com.pk/china-to-set-up-large-steel-factory-at-gwadar-envoy/ … via @Associate Press Of Pakistan

Acting Chinese Ambassador to Pakistan, Zhao Lijian Monday said that his country would set up a large steel factory at Gwadar to further expedite economic developments being carried out under China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) framework.
“Both China and Pakistan would very soon sign an agreement to establish the steel factory, three times bigger than the free economic zone being set up in Gwadar city,” he made this announcement while addressing participants of a day-long conference on CPEC: Potential and Prospects organized by Strategic Vision Institute (SVI) here.
He said, industrial cooperation was the forth pillar of CPEC initiative and both the country would discuss it in the next meeting of Joint Cooperation Committee (JCC) of CPEC to be held in Beijing this month.
“After completion of energy projects, transport infrastructure and development of Gwadar Port, industrial cooperation between China and Pakistan will be the main topic at the next JCC,” he added.
Zhao Lijian informed that China was working a lot for the development of Gwadar Port which was built with the Chinese government’s assistance.
He said, after completion, the port was handed over to Singapore but there was no improvement even after passage of five years.
Finally, it was given to the Chinese government by Pakistan government and the port was made functional and a ship carrying Chinese goods left for Africa.
He said, a business centre, hostel for different companies, fisheries processing plant with cold storage facility had been established in the free economic zone spread over around nine kilometers.
About Gwadar airport up-gradation, he said, the new international airport would have landing facility for all the modern aircraft including A-380 Airbus after completion, adding, prior to the up-gradation only C-130 or propeller-planes could land at the old airport.
The Acting Chinese Ambassador said, a 150-bed hospital was being built for the treatment of local people while a vocational institute had been set up for imparting training of different skills especially for the fishermen.
Talking about different energy project being completed under CPEC initiative in different parts of Pakistan, he particularly mentioned about the coal-based power plants which were being built in accordance with environmental standard set by the World Bank (WB) and other concerned international organizations.
He said, China produces around 60 percent of its total power generation through coal based power stations using modern and state of the art technology.
“The environmental concerns will be taken into consideration during the completion of these power stations,” he added.
Zhao Lijian pointed out hydro power plant, coal based power plants, wind power plants and solar based power plants were being set up to meet the electricity shortage in Pakistan.
He informed that the Karot Power Plant was being financed by the Silk Bank established by the Chinese government.
The groundbraking of Suki Kinari, Kohala Hydro Power Project would be held early next year, he said and added, Sahiwal Power Plant and Port Qasim Power Plant would be completed by next June and December respectively.
He said, a power plant set up at Thar coal site would also be inaugurated in next June.
He said, HUBCO power plant, one of the biggest coal-based power plant, would provide constant and stable power supply throughout the year.
Riaz Haq said…
THE JF-17 II: INTRODUCING BVR & PRECISION STRIKE (UPDATED)
http://quwa.org/2016/07/11/jf-17-ii-introducing-bvr-precision-strike-updated/

It is a modern platform with the room to carry current as well as future subsystems. Yes, it is not a high-performance platform like the Dassault Rafale, but it is a platform capable of using most (if not potentially all) of the very same munitions and subsystems found on pricier alternatives. The only real bottleneck would be Pakistan’s financial capacities.

The JF-17 is equipped with the KLJ-7 mechanically-steered pulse-Doppler radar (developed by the Nanjing Research Institute of Electronic Technology or NRIET). The KLJ-7 can track targets from 75km (at 3m2 RCS – i.e. radar cross-section, an object’s detectability on radar) to 85km (at 5m2 RCS). The KLJ-7 can track up to 10 targets at beyond visual range, and simultaneously engage two with active-radar air-to-air missiles, such as the SD-10.

The SD-10 is an active radar-guided BVRAAM with an approximate range of at least 70km. It functions in a similar manner to the AIM-120C5 (in use with the PAF’s F-16 Block-52+ and MLUs). The SD-10 is equipped with an active radar-guidance seeker as well as data-link supported inertial guidance system. The latter enables the SD-10 to be deployed mid-way to its prospective target, and in a later stage (i.e. the terminal or final stage) the active radar-guidance seeker can kick in to engage the target. Specific performance parameters are difficult to come by, but some have been willing to compare it to the AIM-120, such as Australian defence analyst Dr. Carlo Kopp.

The PL-5EII is the JF-17’s core within visual range air-to-air missile. Although derived from an older platform, the PL-5EII is rated by its chief vendor the China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation (CATIC) as “an improved 3rd generation short-range IR air-to-air missile, which features good anti-jamming capability and all-aspect attack capability.” Dr. Carlo Kopp put the PL-5EII in the same general category as the AIM-9M (which is also used by the PAF’s Block-52+ and MLU F-16s).

In looking at the JF-17’s air-to-surface munitions suite, one must recognize that the PAF has yet to disclose exactly how it intends to arm the platform. However, CATIC is marketing the JF-17 with a whole host of precision-strike weapons in the form of the LT-2, LS-3, LS-6, C-802A and CM-400AKG.

The LT-2 is a laser-guided bomb kit designed for standard general purpose bombs (GPB). It is basically used to equip a GPB (such as potentially the Mk.82) with a laser-based guidance kit. Unlike satellite-aided PGBs, laser guided bombs (LGBs) can be used on a standalone basis, i.e. without the support of a satellite-network. The effectiveness of LGBs can suffer however from poor weather conditions, though the WMD-7 targeting pod could compensate for this to an extent.

The LS-3 and LS-6 are satellite-based PGB kits for 250kg and 500kg GPBs, respectively, and are similar to the Boeing Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) kit for Mk-82 and Mk-83 GPBs. Like the JDAM, the LS-3/6 is meant to augment an existing GPB with a guidance-system and glide-system, enabling the bomb to not only be more precise, but exhibit more range. In fact, the more apt comparison for the LS-3/6 would be the JDAM-ER (short for ‘Extended Range’), a stand-off munition.

The C-802A and CM-400AKG are anti-ship missiles (AShM). The C-802A is in line with emulating the Harpoon and Exocet-series of AShM, but the CM-400AKG is marketed as a high-speed missile designed to engage large ships such as aircraft carriers.


Riaz Haq said…
PAKISTAN AND ITALY AGREE TO STRENGTHEN DEFENCE TIES

http://quwa.org/2016/05/09/pakistan-italy-agree-strengthen-defence-ties/


Italy is among Pakistan’s leading Western suppliers. In the 1990s Finmeccanica (now known as Leonardo) provided radars for the Pakistan Air Force (PAF)’s F-7s and Mirages, most notably the Grifo-7 and Grifo-M, the latter being particularly interested in that it imbued the Mirage ROSE I (Retrofit of Strike Element) with the capacity to utilize a beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile (AAM).

In more recent years, the PAF ordered 10 batteries of MBDA Spada 2000 Plus medium-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems for approximately $475 million U.S. The purchase was concluded in 2007 and the Spada 2000 Plus system (an improved variant of the Spada 2000) was inducted in the PAF. Alongside RAC-3D radars and 750 Aspide 2000 missiles, the package also included maintenance and testing facilities.

Around this time the PAF also ordered a number of Falco unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which were co-produced under license at Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC).

At present, Italian firearms maker Beretta is among the handful of competitors seeking a new standard-issue rifle deal with the Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF) and the Pakistan Army. The ARX-200 – battle rifle chambered for 7.62x51mm – is (or at least was) being evaluated.

Beyond that, there other possible routes for cooperation, but they are merely possibilities. For example, the Pakistan Navy (PN) could consider Alenia Aermacchi – among other competitors – to configure its ATR-72 turboprops for maritime surveillance. The Chief Project Director of the JF-17 Thunder also listed the Leonardo Vixen active electronically-scanned array (AESA) radar as a possible option for use on the JF-17 Block-III, which is currently under development. In October 2015, Finmeccanica’s Selex ES branch said it would also try to compete to source the cockpit for the JF-17 Block-III.

We at Quwa also suggested that the PAF consider working with Leonardo to source a complete radar and avionics suite for the JF-17 Block-III. The Raven ES AESA radar, Skyward infrared search and track (IRST), and BriteCloud self-protection decoy (equipped with a radar jammer) were developed for the Saab JAS-39E/F Gripen NG platform, but are available for use for other platforms (though this is unclear in regards to the Raven ES). The PAF does not even need to embrace every sub-system, it could simply acquire the IRST (which could be integrated or optionally podded) or BriteCloud (which just needs to be placed in the chaff and flare dispenser of the fighter).

Besides the JF-17, Pakistan could also try engaging with the Italians in order to access certain munitions from MBDA, such as the Common Anti-Air Modular Missile (CAMM) or Aster platforms, these may be of interest to the Navy should it ever manage to push new multi-mission frigates into the pipeline.

Once again, it is important to reiterate that this is merely speculation and thinking on our end. The extent to which Pakistan could ever engage with Italy (or another Western firm) will be limited by its capacity to finance pricy acquisitions, and to build foreign relations muscle as a means to thwart others who may seek to undermine its purchases. For the time being, it would be worth keeping an eye on Beretta and perhaps even Leonardo, albeit to a relatively limited extent.
Riaz Haq said…
#Nuclear-armed #Pakistan looks ramp up #defense exports in #aviation. #JF17 #SuperMushshak https://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2017-03-02/pakistan-looks-to-aviation-in-ambitious-defense-export-push … via @bpolitics

Nuclear-armed Pakistan is seeking to ramp up defense exports amid simmering regional tensions and a surge in the global arms trade.

Pakistan expects to increase defense exports more than 10-fold to $1 billion within the next two years, targeting sales to countries such as Egypt, Turkey and Nigeria. Azerbaijan on Wednesday agreed to buy arms from Pakistan.

The target is “very ambitious” and focused on selling aircraft, Defence Production Minister Rana Tanveer Hussain said in an interview in Karachi. Pakistan’s sales drive comes amid a rising trade deficit and heightened tensions with India, its larger neighbor. Pakistan exported about $63 million of arms between 2014 and 2016, Muhammad Zakir Jafri, the joint secretary at the Ministry of Defence Production, said in a separate phone interview.

A late entry in a market dominated by the U.S., Russia and China, Pakistan’s aspirations are reliant on private sector buy in to an industry that has, so far, been tightly held by military-run factories. It already manufactures the Super Mushshak training aircraft as well as the JF-17 Thunder fighter jet, but will need to deepen ties with countries such as Turkey and Saudi Arabia to significantly expand its reach.

Closely-Guarded Secret

Details on defense exports are closely guarded and Pakistan’s statistics bureau doesn’t include the data when measuring the nation’s trade, which showed a deficit of $2.96 billion in January, widening 75 percent from a year earlier.

More than 20 major public and over 100 private sector firms are engaged in manufacturing defense-related products in Pakistan, according to the website of Defence Export Promotion Organisation.

While major defense products are manufactured by the armed forces-run Pakistan Ordinance Factories, Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Heavy Industries Taxila, National Radio Telecommunication Corporation and Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works, the private sector firms produce small supportive equipment only. None of them, according to DEPO website, are manufacturing large items like aircraft.

The introduction of regulatory and taxation incentives would lift the economy by encouraging the private sector to invest in defense manufacturing, said Khurram Schehzad, chief commercial officer at JS Global Capital Ltd.

“Public Private Partnership can be a workable option in increasing the private sector’s capacity to support the government’s export targets,” Schehzad said. “All this requires is a much stronger economic muscle, that is, continuously improving fiscals driven by higher direct income taxes and a deep cut on non-productive spending.”

In the past, Pakistan had focused on exporting small low-value items, but it had upgraded its defense manufacturing to high-value products like such as Al-Khalid tanks and fighter jets, said Muzzammil Aslam, chief executive officer of Invest & Finance Securities Ltd. in Karachi.

“This fetches you a lot of money and really brightens Pakistan’s prospects as a defense exporter.” Even so, analysts like Aslam are doubtful the country can achieve the government’s export target in two years. “I don’t think $1 billion is feasible.”
Riaz Haq said…
#Turkey, #Pakistan sign Turkish warship, Pakistani training plane deals. http://reut.rs/2qSPaBm via @Reuters

Turkey and Pakistan have signed a memorandum of understanding for the sale of four Turkish made corvette warships and 52 Pakistan-made training planes for Ankara's armed forces, Turkey's defense industry undersecretariat said on Wednesday.

Karachi Shipyard (KS&EW) will buy four corvettes made under Turkey's MILGEM warship program, aimed at designing and building locally a fleet of multipurpose corvettes and frigates that will replace older ships.

The Turkish defense undersecretariat said the final deal was expected to be signed on June 30. The statement did not provide any financial details.

Turkey will buy 52 Super Mushshak training planes from Pakistan Aeronautical Complex - Kamra, to replace the T-41 and SF-260 planes currently in use, a statement by Ankara's defense undersecretariat said.

This would be the first time a NATO country has used Super Mushshak planes, the statement added.

Two warships built under the MILGEM project so far, named TCG Heybeliada and TCG Buyukada, were delivered to the Turkish navy in 2011 and 2013. Construction is ongoing for TCG Burgazada and TCG Kinaliada, which are expected to start active duty in 2018 and 2020, respectively.
Riaz Haq said…
#Turkey buys 52 Super Mushshak training #aircraft from #Pakistan | Jane's 360 http://www.janes.com/article/70276/turkey-buys-52-super-mushshak-training-aircraft-from-pakistan#.WRRyV3oemcw.twitter …

Turkey has signed a contract with the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) Kamra for the procurement of 52 MFI-17 Super Mushshak primary trainers, according to a statement issued by the Turkish Defence Industries Undersecretariat (SSM).

The contract was signed on 10 May on the sidelines of the 2017 IDEF defence exhibition in Istanbul in a ceremony presided over by Turkish defence minister Fikri Isik and Pakistan's minister for defence production, Tanvir Hussain.

The value of the contract was not disclosed.

The aircraft are set to replace the Turkish Air Force's ageing T-41D Mescalero and SF-260D trainers.

The Super Mushshak is a PAC licence-built version of the Saab MFI-17 Supporter aircraft. Around 46 of these trainers are currently in service with the Pakistan Air Force (PAF), with the first ones being commissioned in the year 2000, according to Jane's World Air Forces.

In addition to the PAF, the aircraft has been acquired by the air forces of Iran, Iraq, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Nigeria.

In 2015 officials of Pakistan's Ministry of Defence announced that Turkey had donated 34 of its Cessna T-37 trainers to the PAF in a move that strengthened defence relations between the two countries.

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