Thursday, June 18, 2015

Karachi Shipyard to Get Boost From Pak Navy Modernization

Pakistan is launching domestic construction of warships, submarines and missile boats as part of its ambitious naval modernization program in collaboration with China, according to media reports.

Karachi Shipyard 

Chinese media reports have described a building program involving six of eight S-20 AIP-equipped variants of the Type-039A/Type-041 submarine under negotiation; four "Improved F-22P" frigates equipped with enhanced sensors and weaponry (possibly including the HQ-17 surface-to-air missile developed from the Russian Tor 1/SA-N-9); and six Type-022 Houbei stealth catamaran missile boats, to be built by Pakistan's state-owned shipbuilder Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW), according to DefenseNews.

Pakistan is expanding and modernizing its underwater fleet with 8 additional AIP-equipped submarines jointly built with China.  Mansoor Ahmed of Quaid-e-Azam University told Defense News that AIP-equipped conventional submarines "provide reliable second strike platforms, [and] an assured capability resides with [nuclear-powered attack and nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines], which are technically very complex and challenging to construct and operate compared to SSKs, and also very capital intensive."

Expansion of KSEW in Karachi includes a new foundry, fabrication facilities to cover all aspects of ship construction, berthing facilities, and two graving docks of 26,000 and 18,000 dead weight tons, spread over 71 acres. A 7,881-ton ship lift transfer system will be completed next year. KSEW will expand to occupy facilities vacated by the Navy as it transfers from Karachi to Ormara. The Pakistan Navy Dockyard, which is adjacent to KSEW, already has facilities upgraded by the French during construction of Agosta-90B submarines.

The Pakistan Navy modernization efforts further expands existing China-Pakistan military manufacturing collaboration at Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) which has resulted in design and manufacturing of JF-17 fighter jets for Pakistan Air Force.

JF-17 Fighter Jet
In addition to designing and building military hardware together, Pakistan and China are also increasingly collaborating on manufacturing consumer appliances and products. The Pakistan-China economic corridor project includes setting up of several special economic zones for this purpose. A good example of this cooperation is Haier-Ruba special economic zone in Lahore.  Haier-Ruba joint venture in Pakistan has announced plans to start manufacturing laptops and smartphones in Lahore this year, according to the JV chairman Shah Faisal Afridi. The Haier-Ruba group is one of the largest manufacturers of polyester yarn and home appliances in the country.

The growth of both military and civilian manufacturing industries is helping to develop Pakistan's human capital and creating job opportunities for engineers, technicians and other workers.

Pakistan has taken a page from China's industrialization playbook which shows that the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) led the nation's industrial growth, first with military hardware and then expanding into consumer and industrial product manufacturing.

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Pakistan to Deploy AIP Subs For 2nd Strike

Pakistani Military Pushing Industrialization

IDEAS 2014: Pakistan's Arms Bazar

Pakistan-China Industrial Corridor to Boost FDI, Manufacturing and Exports

Haier Pakistan to Expand to Consumer Electronics

India's Israel Envy: What If Modi Attacks Pakistan?

Pakistan's Human Capital

19 comments:

Riaz Haq said...

Today's #India-#Pakistan Armed Tensions - Will New U.S. Military and Nuclear Aid to #Modi Inflame Them? http://onforb.es/1BsnpQD

The Obama Administration cooperates with India in large measure from hope for collaboration with India to contain China’s military buildup and aggressive moves. Punit Saurabh just published a persuasive report, India and U.S. Grow Closer Against a Backdrop of An Expansionist China. President Obama has gone twice to India, and forged a strong tie with Modi. Those ties expand at the level of the Secretary of Defense, Ashton Carter, and further down at the level of the procurement undersecretary, Frank Kendall.

But that does not mean Pakistan will look on the India-U.S. cooperation as benign. On the contrary, something of an opposing set of alliances is shaping up. A little-mentioned aspect of this has been what Saurabh calls “China’s overt and covert support to the Pakistani defense buildup, aimed at India through supply of submarines, JF-17 fighters, and strategic inroads in sensitive parts of Kashmir. In other words, China is helping Pakistani on sea, air, and land, just as the U.S. helps India.


So, what is the U.S. providing for the Indian military that may add to these tensions? The single most interesting item: the Pentagon has publicly set up a collaboration group to help India build its next aircraft carrier, implementing it this month. India has kept open the option that this could be a nuclear-propelled aircraft carrier.

India is said to be particularly interested in the Pentagon’s method of launching planes, from these carriers Specifically, the next generation “Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System” (EMALS) will be used on the new Ford-class U.S. carriers. India wants that and may get it. And, it wants to build the aircraft carrier itself, at least in part. In light of the U.S. sharing advanced technology, the other part might get built in the Newport News Shipbuilding yard. That would mean a lot of lucrative business for Huntington Ingalls, already a major beneficiary of defense appropriations, and very well connected — the kind of step that tilts advanced U.S. arms making and selling toward India.

As for nuclear, India seeks, and is getting, cooperation on building nuclear reactors for civilian energy generation. That would mean a lot of lucrative business for Westinghouse and General Electric.

Of course, the United States has strong ties with Pakistan, too. In fact, today there is some extra good will, as the United States fights the Afghan Taliban and Pakistan has taken up arms vigorously against the Pakistani Taliban. The U.S. tries its best not to seem to be tilting toward India in the subcontinent powers’ tense rivalry.

Still, the cooperation agreements between Obama and Modi pledged to come together “to disrupt entities such as Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed . . .and the Haqqani Network.” Of course, those entities work with Pakistan’s powerful intelligence service, ISI. Lashkar-e-Tayyiba was behind the Mumbai terror attack. The Haqqani Network is one of our major enemies in Afghanistan. A joint list like that by Obama and Modi aligns them against Pakistani support for violent Islamic terror groups.

None of this is to say that the United States can stop working with India against China. That must go ahead. But it has the potential to antagonize Pakistan. And that agitates the potentially scariest confrontation in the world.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/charlestiefer/2015/06/19/todays-india-pakistan-armed-tensions-will-new-u-s-military-and-nuclear-aid-to-modi-inflame-them/

Riaz Haq said...

#China, #Pakistan to jointly export upgraded jet fighter #JF17 #DubaiAirshow http://www.ibnlive.com/news/world/china-pakistan-to-jointly-export-upgraded-jet-fighter-1162704.html … via @ibnlive

Beijing: China and Pakistan will jointly export an upgraded version of the JF-17 multi-role fighter jet co-produced by the two countries since 1998. Officials from Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) and the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) command said on Monday at the ongoing Dubai Airshow that an upgraded version of the jointly developed JF-17 fighter jet is expected to be exported to more customers.
Briefing reporters at Al Maktoum International Airport in Dubai, Liu Yu, Vice President of China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation, said the next generation of the JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft will satisfy the growing market demand from third parties "as the future JF-17 aircraft is a comprehensive elevation of the aircraft."

The future JF-17 will have more advanced capabilities, such as air-to-air refuelling, data link and electronic warfare, and will be integrated with more new guided weapons, state-run Xinhua quoted Liu as saying in Dubai. A dual-seated version of the JF-17 fighter/trainer is also under development, added Liu.
China, which maintained close strategic relations with Pakistan military for long has recently reached USD five billion deal to provide eight submarines to its all-weather ally. PAF Vice Marshal Arshad Malik said the Pakistani army expects the new version JF-17 jet to get into service by the end of 2016.

The JF-17 fighter is co-produced by AVIC and PAF since 1998 based on the principle of "joint investment, joint development, and sharing risks and returns." At present, JF-17 fighter is already procured by a third party customer, and several potential customers are conducting or plan to conduct the evaluation of the JF-17 fighter, Xinhua report said without giving details. The 14th Dubai International Airshow officially kicked off in Dubai yesterday and will run through Thursday.`

Riaz Haq said...

Closer #Pakistan-#China military ties irk #Europe, #America. #Burraq - http://FT.com http://on.ft.com/1RInMfc via @FT


When Pakistan’s military claimed its first attack in October using a home-built drone to hit a Taliban stronghold, western officials were quick to search for clues to a Chinese connection.
Experts say Pakistan’s “Burraq”, one of the first two indigenously built armed drones, bears a striking resemblance to China’s CH-3.

Officials lauded the drone that equipped Pakistan with a technology that has been denied them by the US in 15 years as a key Washington ally in the campaign against terror.
“The Americans have given us billions of dollars and military equipment like F-16s since the 9/11 attacks,” says one senior Pakistani foreign ministry official. “But whenever we asked for armed drones, we were refused and the Americans always told us that was sensitive technology.”
Though Pakistani officials deny suggestions of Chinese involvement in the country’s drone programme, western officials remain unconvinced as military links between Beijing and Islamabad tighten.
Earlier this year, China confirmed an agreement to sell eight submarines to Pakistan in Beijing’s largest ever single defence export order.

“The gap between Chinese capabilities and those of the west have been narrowed, except in a few areas such as the production of aero-engines, for which Chinese-built platforms remain dependent on Russian imports.”
Mr Felstead’s reference to Russian components is most visible in the case of the JF-17 “Thunder” fighter jet, jointly manufactured by China and the Pakistan Air Force at its Pakistan Aeronautical Complex facility just north of Islamabad. A senior Pakistan defence ministry official confirmed that the JF-17, which will become the PAF’s main second-line fighter jet, will be “powered for the foreseeable future” with the Russian-built RD-93 engine, overlooking Beijing’s offer of a Chinese engine.
Pieter Wezeman of the SIPRI says Chinese military equipment is at a disadvantage for not having been used in conflict situations, unlike hardware from western suppliers which comes with a combat history. “The only place where Chinese equipment is known to have performed alongside equipment from other suppliers is Pakistan,” he notes.
In the case of Pakistan’s use of its first armed drone, Mr Wezeman says it is important to remember that it was used against Taliban targets in a remote region along the Afghan border, and it was not challenged by enemy aircraft. “One has to be careful before one sees this as a breakthrough,” he adds.
Still, western defence officials say Beijing’s strategy of offering significantly lower prices and a virtual absence of political strings gives China a rising presence in international markets.
Rana Tanveer Hussain, Pakistan’s minister of defence production, has confirmed that half of the eight submarines will be built at the Karachi shipyard and engineering works, boosting Pakistan’s shipbuilding capacity.
“The two projects [building four submarines in China and four in Pakistan] will begin simultaneously,” he said, while commending China as an “all-weather friend”.

Riaz Haq said...

#Karachi Shipyard cuts steel on first of 6 MPVs of 600 tons each for #Pakistan #Navy. #China | IHS Jane's 360 http://www.janes.com/article/59973/ksew-cuts-steel-on-pakistan-s-first-mpv-as-new-details-emerge#.VyoBf5NDKoM.twitter …

Key Points
KSEW has begun building the first of six MPVs for the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency
The vessels will replace the Barkat-class patrol boats that have been in service since the late 1980s
Pakistan's state-owned shipbuilder Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) has held a steel-cutting ceremony for the first of six maritime patrol vessels (MPVs) on order for the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency (PMSA).

New details on Pakistan's capability requirements for the vessels have also emerged.

The steel-cutting ceremony was held on 3 May and was attended by senior officials from the Pakistan Navy, KSEW, and China Shipbuilding Trading Company (CSTC).

The MPVs, each displacing 600 tonnes at full load, are being constructed under a transfer-of-technology arrangement signed between KSEW and CSTC in June 2015. KSEW will construct two vessels in Pakistan while the remaining four will be built by CSTC in China.

No further details on the vessels were provided by KSEW in its media release for the ceremony; the company also declined an interview request from IHS Jane's on 4 May, citing confidentiality issues.

However, a tender document on the MPV programme, published by the Pakistani government's planning commission, revealed a requirement for a platform that can attain a maximum speed of 30 kt and a cruising speed of between 12-16 kt. The vessel should also have a standard range of 4,500 n miles at cruising speed, and have an endurance of 21 days at sea without replenishment.

Armament to be fitted onboard includes either a 37 mm or a 30 mm gun as a primary weapon, in addition to mountings for two 12.7 mm machine guns.

An artist's illustration of the MPV, shown at the ceremony, suggests that the PMSA has opted for an automatic stabilised naval gun system as the platform's main weapon.

The illustration also suggests that the platform can accommodate a single helicopter on its flight deck on top of two rigid-hull inflatable boats at the stern section.

Riaz Haq said...

#French #India #submarine #ScorpeneLeak Lets Vital Stats Are Out In Open: 10 Facts http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/more-scorpene-leaks-tonight-says-australian-newspaper-10-facts-1450394 … via @ndtv

The sonar system, including the frequencies used by its key components, the Flank Array, the Sonar Intercept Receiver, the Distributed Array and the Active Array have been compromised. All these systems work together to allow the submarine to detect enemy warships and submarines and attack them using torpedoes.

The latest tranche of data appears to contradict the Ministry of Defence statement earlier today that there was no immediate security risk from the leak of secret documents detailing the capabilities of the Scorpene.

The Australian newspaper, which reported on the leak two days ago, posted new details this evening on its website but with sensitive info redacted.

So though the documents prove that the classified information had been compromised, it is not in the public domain.
The documents posted earlier have been examined and do not pose any security compromise as the vital parameters have been blacked out," the defence ministry said in a statement earlier. However, it is The Australian which has redacted sensitive data. It is possible that these documents are also available to others.

Six Scorpenes designed by French shipmaker DCNS are being built in Mumbai. The first is expected to join service before the end of this year.

On Tuesday night, the Australian said it had 22,000 pages of details that exposed the combat capability of the submarines, being built at a cost of $3.5 billion.

The documents were stolen from DCNS and not leaked, an unnamed French government source said to news agency Reuters, adding that the information published so far shows only operational aspects of the submarines.

The source said the documents appeared to have been stolen in 2011 by a former French employee that had been fired while providing training in India on the use of the submarines.

India and France have opened investigations with Delhi asking for a detailed report.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan prepares to launch third Azmat-class missile boat at #Karachi Shipyard | IHS Jane's 360 http://www.janes.com/article/63808/pakistan-prepares-to-launch-third-azmat-class-patrol-vessel#.V9qwZHCA198.twitter …

State-owned Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works Limited (KSEW) will launch an Azmat-class missile-capable patrol craft for the Pakistan Navy on 17 September.

The platform, which was laid down in August 2015, will be the country's third Azmat-class boat. First-of-class PNS Azmat (1013) was commissioned in June 2012, while second ship PNS Deshat (1014) was inducted in June 2014.

Contracts to acquire a third and fourth vessel were signed in June 2013 and June 2014 respectively. Construction of these platforms is being undertaken in collaboration with China's shipbuilding industry under an arrangement aimed at transferring technology to KSEW.

The Azmat class is based on the People's Liberation Army Navy's (PLAN's) Houjian (Type 037/2)-class missile boat design. The 63 m vessel has a top speed of 30 kt, and a range of 1,000 n miles at 18 kt, according to IHS Jane's Fighting Ships.

The platform's offensive capabilities are provided by eight (two quad) launchers that are capable of deploying the C-802A surface-to-surface missile, a twin 37 mm gun mounting in the forward section, and a Type 630 30 mm close-in weapon system (CIWS) for defence against aerial threats.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Unveils VLF Submarine Communications Facility for #Nuclear Armed Subs Under Naval Strategic Forces Command http://www.defensenews.com/articles/pakistan-unveils-vlf-submarine-communications-facility …

Pakistan on Tuesday unveiled a very low frequency (VLF) communication facility that will enable it to communicate with deployed submarines.

Mansoor Ahmed, a postdoctoral research fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center and expert on Pakistan’s nuclear program and delivery systems, said the facility is vital for command and control of submarines carrying a nuclear deterrent patrol, and the announcement essentially confirms Pakistan has established a preliminary, sea-based arm of its nuclear deterrent.

"The Naval Strategic Force Command inaugurated in 2012 is now closer to being the custodian of the country's second-strike capability," he said.

According to an official news release by the military’s Inter Services Public Relations media branch, the VLF facility is at a new base, PNS Hameed, near Pakistan’s main port of Karachi, and is the first of its
kind in the country.

“The secure military communication link in the VLF spectrum will add new dimensions by enhancing the flexibility and reach of submarine operations," the news release said.

-----

Ahmed said Pakistan likely will deploy a nuclear-armed, sub-launched variant of Babur “during the next decade.”

The Babur is similar to the United States' BGM-109 Tomahawk and has long been speculated to be modified for launch by Pakistan’s three French-designed Agosta 90B submarines, thereby offering the shortest route to a second-strike capability.

A dedicated nuclear role places an additional burden on the submarines, however, with the two Agosta 70 subs near obsolete.

Author, analyst and former Australian defense attaché to Islamabad, Brian Cloughley, said Pakistan’s submarines are the “only means that Pakistan will have to seriously counter the Indian Navy. No matter
how professional the surface fleet might be — and it's very impressive — it's tiny and would be the target of concentrated Indian strikes.”

Therefore, a continuous at-sea deterrent capability may only be realized once the eight Chinese-designed, AIP-equipped submarines on order begin to commission from 2022 onward.

Riaz Haq said...

#India's Nuclear Submarine In #Pakistan's Waters Triggers War Worries http://www.valuewalk.com/2016/11/india-submarine-pakistan-sea/ … via @ValueWalk

As war tensions between India and Pakistan are soaring, an Indian nuclear submarine attempted to enter Pakistani waters but found itself pushed out by the Pakistan Navy. India had tried to send its nuclear-powered submarine into Pakistani waters in what appears to be an attempt to provoke Pakistan to a military stand-off. But the Pakistan Navy successfully intercepted the submarine before it entered its marine territory.


The Pakistan Navy has once again “proved its vigilance and operational competence” by preventing the Indian submarine from entering Pakistani waters, according to the Pakistan Army’s press office. Pakistan Navy Fleet units detected and localized India’s nuclear submarine, which may have been spying south of the Pakistani coast. Pakistanis noted that the submarine had made “desperate” attempts to escape detection but was eventually pushed out of Pakistani waters.

“This is a proof of Pakistan Navy’s extremely skilled anti-submarine warfare unit,” the Pakistani Army’s press release stated on Friday.

The Pakistan Navy has once again “proved its vigilance and operational competence” by preventing the Indian submarine from entering Pakistani waters, according to the Pakistan Army’s press office. Pakistan Navy Fleet units detected and localized India’s nuclear submarine, which may have been spying south of the Pakistani coast. Pakistanis noted that the submarine had made “desperate” attempts to escape detection but was eventually pushed out of Pakistani waters.

“This is a proof of Pakistan Navy’s extremely skilled anti-submarine warfare unit,” the Pakistani Army’s press release stated on Friday.

In the press release, Pakistan warned that it remains vigilant and fully prepared to respond to India’s aggression. Hours after the press release was published, India denied Pakistan’s claim of detecting and chasing away its nuclear submarine.

The nuclear submarine that was pushed out of Pakistani waters is one more indication that India continues making attempts to destabilize the situation. On Monday, India’s unprovoked firings along the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir resulted in the deaths of seven Pakistani soldiers. Pakistanis responded to the aggression and killed 11 of India’s soldiers, according to Pakistani Army Chief Raheel Sharif on Wednesday.

However, India strongly denies the accusations and claims that “no fatal casualties” took place along the LoC between November 14 and 16.

Sharif said, “The Indian Army should man up and own up the loss of lives of its personnel.”

The Army chief claims Pakistanis have killed “40-44 Indian troops” in the current clashes. Pakistan views India’s recent violations as a means of diverting the world’s attention away from the atrocities committed by Indian forces in the disputed Kashmir region.

Some Pakistanis believe that India’s increasing aggression is designed to drag their country into a direct military confrontation. India’s “No First Use” policy on nuclear weapons means it won’t unleash war against Pakistan unless attacked by it.


Riaz Haq said...

#Chinese naval ships in #Pakistan's #Gwadar port challenge #India's regional policy. #Russia #Iran http://scroll.in/article/822619/chinese-naval-ships-in-pakistans-gwadar-port-call-for-a-rethink-of-indias-regional-policy … via @scroll_in

The transformation of Gwadar port on the Pakistan coast as a base for Chinese Navy ships was long expected, but when media reports actually appeared on Friday to that effect, it was startling news. The reports quoted Pakistani officials saying that China proposes to deploy its naval ships in coordination with the Pakistan Navy to safeguard Gwadar port, which is the gateway to the $46-billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

India would have had some intelligence tip-off, which probably explains the mysterious episode on November 14 of an Indian submarine lurking in the vicinity of Pakistani territorial waters. It was brusquely shooed away by the Pakistani Navy. Of course, the corridor was operationalised a fortnight ago with Chinese ships docking at Gwadar to carry the first containers brought by a Chinese trade convoy from Xinjiang for despatch to the world market.

Viewed from many perspectives, the month of November becomes a defining moment in the geopolitics of our region. But the strangest bit of news would be that earlier this month, Gwadar also received Russia’s Federal Security Services chief Alexander Bogdanov. It was a hush-hush inspection tour aimed at assessing the efficacy of Russian ships using the port during their long voyages, to assert Moscow’s return to the global stage.

Equally, this is the first visit by a Russian spy chief to Pakistan in over two decades and it took place just as America elected a new president, Donald Trump. Maybe the timing is coincidental, but more likely, it is not. The Russian diplomacy invariably moves in lockstep. Bogdanov’s visit was scheduled just a few weeks before the planned trilateral strategic dialogue between Russia, China and Pakistan, ostensibly regarding the Afghan situation, in Moscow next month. Bogdanov reportedly sought a formal Russian-Pakistani collaborative tie-up over the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

Moscow wouldn’t have made such a move without coordinating with China first. At a meeting in Moscow with his Chinese counterpart, Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu was quoted as saying that China-Russia military cooperation is “at an all-time high and it will contribute to peace and stability on the Eurasian continent and beyond”.

Meanwhile, Chinese regional diplomacy, too, is moving in tandem. The Chinese Defence Minister Chang Wangquan (who is also vice-chairman of China’s Military Commission, which is headed by President Xi Jinping) paid a three-day visit to Iran last week. Chang’s visit held considerable geopolitical significance for the region and he described his meetings as signifying a turning point in the China-Iran strategic partnership. It is useful to recall that during Xi’s visit to Iran in January, the two countries had signed a 25-year strategic cooperation agreement that included a call for much closer defence and intelligence ties.

Riaz Haq said...

#American engineers find #India's home-made first aircraft carrier is a dud. Need another 10 years to make it work http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2016/11/30/u-s-effort-to-help-india-build-up-navy-hits-snag/?mod=e2fb When top American naval engineers recently inspected India’s first locally made aircraft carrier they expected to find a near battle-ready ship set to help counter China’s growing sway in the Indian Ocean.

Instead, they discovered the carrier wouldn’t be operational for up to a decade and other shortcomings: no small missile system to defend itself, a limited ability to launch sorties and no defined strategy for how to use the ship in combat. The findings alarmed U.S. officials hoping to enlist India as a bulwark against China, people close to the meeting said.

“China’s navy will be the biggest in the world soon, and they’re definitely eyeing the Indian Ocean with ports planned in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh,” said retired Admiral Arun Prakash, the former commander of India’s navy. “The Indian navy is concerned about this.”

The February carrier inspection, in the port of Kochi, formed part of U.S. plans to share aircraft carrier technology with India. Indian naval officials followed up with a tour of an American shipbuilding yard in Virginia and strategy briefings at the Pentagon in September, the people close to the meetings said.

The U.S. and India are drawing closer politically and militarily. The two have participated in joint naval exercises with Japan. The U.S. has agreed to sell New Delhi everything from attack helicopters to artillery. Washington has approved proposals by Lockheed Martin and Boeing Co. to make advanced jet fighters in India. And in August, the two countries signed a military logistics-sharing accord.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Builds New Missile Boat to Protect Key Trade Routes #CPEC #Gwadar http://www.defensenews.com/articles/pakistan-builds-new-missile-boat-to-protect-key-trade-routes …

Pakistan has commenced construction of a new type of missile boat as part of efforts to modernize its navy to ensure security for the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a trade route linking western China to the Arabian Sea via Pakistan’s deep water port of Gwadar.

Pakistan hopes the CPEC will revive its economy, whereas China’s trade and energy resources will be bypassing the Malacca Strait.

First steel for the boat was cut Dec. 29. Images from the ceremony revealed it to be a development of the Azmat-class missile boat designed for Pakistan by China. Three Azmat boats have been built, one in China and two in Pakistan by state-owned Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works (KSEW).

A statement by the military’s Inter Service Public Relations media arm revealed that the boat, which is considered the first indigenously designed missile boat, was developed by Maritime Technologies Complex and would have the “latest weapons and sensors.”

Though released images from the ceremony leave some questions unanswered about the new vessels' exact features, notable differences from the base model include new missiles, a redesigned forward superstructure and a possible replacement of the twin 25mm cannon.

The navy declined to provide further details regarding the changes.

Defense News first learned of the new missile boat during IDEAS 2016, Pakistan’s biennial defense exhibition held in November, when spokesmen for the shipyard KSEW and the sea service separately revealed the existence of the program.

Though unwilling to go into detail, they said the new design would feature new weaponry, sensors and materials. Future plans include an indigenous combat management system, anti-ship missiles and possibly air-defense missiles, the lack of which is presently a notable weakness.

The Azmat missile boats are armed with eight C-802A/CSS-N-8 Saccade anti-ship missiles, but the new design is clearly armed with six larger missiles. Speculation is that the weapons are the C-602, an export development of China’s YJ-62, which is in Pakistani service as a coastal defense missile named "Zarb."

The subsonic C-602 has a reported range of 280 kilometers and carries a 300-kilogram warhead. It packs a bigger punch and has longer reach than the C-802A.

However, last year, a Ministry of Defence Production report revealed a ship-board launcher for a land-attack cruise missile was under development.

Pakistan’s only surface-launched, land-attack missile is the indigenous Babur. Thus far there have been no reports of an anti-ship variant, but fitting the C-602 seeker to the missile would certainly expedite development.

News of the new missile boat comes amid Chinese reluctance to establish a permanent presence in the area, forcing Pakistan to forge ahead with efforts to improve its maritime security, albeit with Chinese help.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Test-Fires #Submarine-Launched #Missile for "2nd strike" to complete #nuke triad - ABC News - http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/pakistan-test-fired-submarine-launched-missile-44650839 … via @ABC

Pakistan's military says it has successfully test-fired a submarine-launched cruise missile for the first time, giving it a "credible second strike capability."

A statement Monday said the missile was fired from the Indian Ocean and hit its target. It said the Babur Cruise-3 missile has a range of 450 kilometers (280 miles) and can fly low to evade radar and air defenses.

It added that the missile "is capable of delivering various types of payloads and will provide Pakistan with a Credible Second Strike Capability, augmenting deterrence." It appeared to be referring to a strategy in which the ability to strike back after a nuclear attack deters adversaries from launching one.

Pakistan became a nuclear power in 1998, developing the capability to match that of neighbor and archrival India.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan: Military Test-Fires First Submarine-Launched Cruise Missile
https://www.stratfor.com/situation-report/pakistan-military-test-fires-first-submarine-launched-cruise-missile


creating a plausible sea-based second-strike threat requires a submarine fleet that can fire missiles. As of now Pakistan has only five of these vessels, three of which could be considered fairly modern. Nevertheless, Islamabad plans to dramatically expand its submarine fleet: In 2015, it struck a deal with Beijing to buy eight submarines similar to the Yuan-class model. Pakistan is also in the process of moving its main submarine base to Ormara from Karachi, which is more vulnerable to attack than the new location because of its proximity to the Indian border.

But Pakistan's reliance on diesel-electric submarines, rather than dedicated nuclear ballistic missile counterparts, comes with significant risks. For example, Pakistani submarines carrying nuclear weapons could come under attack from Indian anti-submarine forces that are unable to distinguish the vessels based on their mission. This could lead Pakistani commanders, who may think the attack is part of an Indian effort to neutralize Islamabad's sea-based nuclear force, to fire their nuclear missiles during what might otherwise be a conventional conflict.

This links directly to a second danger: the security of Pakistan's nuclear arsenal. Because submarines' nuclear-tipped cruise missiles must be ready to launch before they leave port, an enormous amount of responsibility and power is placed on the shoulders of the officers piloting the vessels. Untrustworthy commanders or breakdowns in the chain of command could considerably raise the risk of the unsanctioned use of nuclear weapons.

When all is said and done, Pakistan's decision to rely on nuclear weapons as a means of warding off attack from a more powerful India has increased the chance of nuclear warfare breaking out in South Asia. Though Islamabad's quest for a sea-based nuclear deterrent is hardly surprising, it is a conspicuous example of an alarming pattern of posturing between two nuclear powers that have a long and volatile history of hostility toward each other.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Closer To Nuclear Second-Strike Capability After Sub Missile Test

http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/6959/pakistan-closer-to-nuclear-second-strike-capability-after-sub-missile-test


Second strike capability means that even if a full-on surprise nuclear barrage were to knock out a country’s nuclear weapons capability, that country still has the ability to make their attacker pay dearly via a retaliatory nuclear attack. It is considered the pinnacle of nuclear deterrent strategies.

Pakistan’s Babur-3 submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM) that was tested just weeks ago in the Indian Ocean is an evolution of the land-based Babur-2. The Babur series of cruise missiles were developed partially via reverse engineering US Navy BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missiles that crashed in Pakistan in 1998. The first and second land-based versions offered just another layer of attack capability for the Pakistani military, but the submarine-launched Babur-3’s strategic significance is far greater.

Pakistani military officials claim that the sea-skimming Babur-3 has a 280 miles range and is highly accurate. The missile will likely end up on Pakistan’s three French-designed Agosta 90B class—locally known as the Khalid class—diesel-electric submarines.

These 2,000 ton displacement submarines are quite advanced and are built for open-ocean missions. They can stay submerged for multiple days at a time via their MESMA air independent propulsion (AIP) system. Normal weaponry for the type includes SM39 Exocet anti-ship missiles and 533mm torpedoes.

With the Babur 3’s supposed range of just under 300 miles, and with just three submarines assigned to the task of deploying them (eventually), Pakistan’s fledgling ability to deliver a second strike on an enemy state is quite limited, but it may still be credible. It remains unclear if Pakistan will keep one boat at sea at all times or if they will train to surge-deploy at a moment's notice. Other operational questions remain as well, including what type of command and control interface will be used to authorize a submarine originated nuclear strike.

A second strike deterrent is largely achieved by deploying nuclear submarines loaded with nuclear-warhead laden submarine-launched ballistic missiles, but the use of nuclear-tipped cruise missiles aboard small diesel-electric submarines as a “poor man’s” second strike capability is not new. Israel has put the concept to use, leveraging their increasingly capable Dolphin class diesel-electric submarines loaded with nuclear-tipped Popeye Turbo cruise missiles. Other countries may be looking at deploying similar concepts in the future.

Although still a far cry from India’s 6,000 ton displacement Arihant class nuclear ballistic missile submarines (one is service and three others planned) and the short-range K-15 or medium-range K-4 ballistic missiles they carry, Pakistan’s nuclear armed Agosta class boats at least get the country in the second strike game, but in a very minimal way.

The Indian Navy’s anti-submarine capability is credible, and their submarine fleet includes multiple diesel-electric submarines of different origin, as wells a Russian Akula II class nuclear fast attack boat. So keeping an eye on Pakistan’s tiny Agosta 90B fleet will be possible, although it is not clear what level of confidence the Indian Navy has that they can always keep the boats in their own submarines’ crosshairs. Not just that, but even attempting to do so will tie up valuable assets that could better be assigned to deterring other regional nuclear powers, like China.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan steps up #missile tests to counter #India #defence push https://www.ft.com/content/a66fdc8c-e6b1-11e6-893c-082c54a7f539 … via @FT

Pakistan is ramping up nuclear missile tests in response to India’s drive to modernise its armed forces, increasing already heightened tensions between the two countries, military and political analysts warn.

Islamabad last week conducted its first flight test of the surface-to-surface Ababeel missile, which has a range of 2,200km and which officials and analysts say marks a significant step forward in the country’s ability to target locations in India. The move followed Pakistan’s first ballistic missile launch from a submarine earlier this month.

“Taken together, these tests prove Pakistan’s ability to go for an outright war if war is imposed on us,” a senior Pakistani foreign ministry official told the Financial Times.

Relations between the two nuclear-armed neighbours have been tense ever since the partition that followed independence from Britain in 1947. They have fought three major wars, largely for control of the disputed state of Kashmir.


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“If Pakistan has a ‘second-strike’ capability, it could make it more assertive and potentially more willing to launch a first attack against India,” said Rahul Roy-Chaudhury, senior fellow for South Asia at the International institute for Strategic Studies.

Pakistani officials last week warned they were ready to use nuclear weapons against India in the event of an invasion by its neighbour. This followed an admission by Bipin Rawat, head of the Indian army, that the country had a plan to send troops across the border if it suffered a terror attack believed to originate in Pakistan.

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Tariq Rauf, head of the disarmament programme at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, said Pakistan’s response was a reaction to the build-up of India’s conventional military forces.

“If you look at deployment of India’s forces which can seize and hold territory, 75 per cent of the forces are within reach of the border [with Pakistan],” he said.

Ikram Sehgal, a prominent Pakistani commentator on defence and security affairs, said: “Pakistan cannot match India’s planned spending on conventional arms. The route that Pakistan is taking is to build up its strategic forces for a credible response if the Indians ever cross over [into Pakistan].”

After its submarine-based missile test, Islamabad said: “The successful attainment of a second-strike capability by Pakistan represents a major scientific milestone. It is manifestation of the strategy of measured response to nuclear strategies and postures being adopted in Pakistan’s neighbourhood.”

An official described the Ababeel missile — the first in Pakistan’s arsenal able to launch multiple warheads at different targets — “the successful completion of our deterrence”.

While most experts believe the threat of nuclear war between the two neighbours remains low, some warn about the risks of an accident caused by trigger-happy military leaders.

“Unlike the old days when the Soviet Union and the United States did not share a common border, India and Pakistan share a land border,” said one senior western diplomat with responsibility for monitoring the two militaries. “The risk of one side accidentally going to war is higher.”

Riaz Haq said...

SharpEye #radar for #Pakistan #submarines - News - Shephard https://www.shephardmedia.com/news/digital-battlespace/pakistans-agosta-90b-gets-sharpeye-radar-systems/#.WK6AzEDudmU.twitter …

Kelvin Hughes will supply the I-band SharpEye Doppler submarine radar system as part of a mid-life upgrade programme for the Pakistan Navy's Agosta 90B class submarines. The company announced the contract on 21 February.

Kelvin Hughes will work with lead contractor STM on the programme, with the first system set for delivery in 2018.

Traditionally, submarines only tend to use radar for navigation when entering or leaving port, because high-power RF transmissions can compromise their ability to remain undetected when used in more open waters. However, with its low power, pulse Doppler transmission technology, SharpEye can provide a reduced probability of intercept which significantly lowers the risk of the submarine being detected but without compromising the target detection performance of the radar.

The SharpEye transceiver can be located within the pressure hull, making use of the existing bulkhead infrastructure, antenna rotational drive and waveguide connections.

The radar uses Doppler processing to detect targets at long range, including small, low radar cross section targets in adverse weather conditions. A series of electronic filters enables the radar to distinguish between targets of interest and unwanted sea and rain clutter.

Barry Jones, regional sales manager for Kelvin Hughes, said: 'We are delighted that the Pakistan Navy, a respected and long-standing customer of Kelvin Hughes, has chosen to take advantage of the performance and reliability benefits that our innovative SharpEye radar technology can now bring to submarine platforms. We're looking forward to working with our project partner STM to jointly deliver SharpEye capability to the Navy and [Agosta 90B] class submarines.'

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan #Navy successfully tests land-based, anti-ship #missile
https://www.dawn.com/news/1320864

Pakistan Navy on Thursday conducted a successful test of a land-based, anti-ship missile, APP reported.

A press release from the Navy said that the trial was conducted from the coastal region and the missile secured a hit on a target placed at sea.

The missile is equipped with advanced technology and avionics, which enable engagement of targets at sea with a high degree of accuracy.

The event was witnessed by Vice Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Khan Hasham Bin Saddique and senior officers of Pakistan Navy.

Admiral Saddique commended the successful accomplishment of the objectives of the trial and lauded the hard work and efforts of all those who were involved, specifically appreciating the crew of the missile unit.

Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah in his message said that the weapon system has added a new dimension to the operational reach of Pakistan Navy, allowing it to bolster seaward defences by giving the Navy the capability to launch long-range, anti-ship missiles from land.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan conducts anti-ship missile test
By: Usman Ansari, March 16, 2017
http://www.defensenews.com/articles/pakistan-conducts-anti-ship-missile-test

Pakistan successfully test launched a land-based anti-ship missile on Thursday, but the did not reveal its identity, possibly indicating it is a new development of its Babur land-attack cruise missile.

The military’s media branch, ISPR, said the “land-based anti-ship missile” featured “advanced technology and avionics, which enable engagement of targets at sea with high accuracy.”

The trial, witnessed by Vice Chief of Naval Staff Adm. Khan Hasham Bin Saddique and other senior officers, was undertaken in the coastal region. A warning to shipping regarding missile tests was issued for March 16-17.

Siddique congratulated the technical team, saying the test would help improve Pakistan’s defenses and operational reach of the Navy by enabling the launch of long-range, anti-ship missiles from land.

No performance details or even the name of the missile were provided, however.

Though an image released by the government’s Press Information Department appeared to show a Babur missile, its resolution was insufficient to accurately determine the missile’s identity.

In April last year, a shore-based anti-ship missile dubbed Zarb was test fired. It was speculated by analysts to be the Chinese C-602/YJ-62.

However, a naval industry official told Defense News at Pakistan’s biennial defense exhibition IDEAS 2016 in November that Pakistan was working on indigenous anti-ship missiles. This followed an earlier revelation buried in a Ministry of Defence Production report of development of a shipboard anti-ship missile launcher.

In December, steel was cut for the first indigenous Azmat Block II missile boat, which in can be determined from the images released at the time will carry a larger anti-ship missile than the C-802A/CSS-N-8 Saccade that arms the Block I boats.

No confirmation of this missile’s identity has been forthcoming since then, but it sparked speculation that Pakistan’s indigenous anti-ship missile efforts were perhaps more advanced than realized.

The Babur offers the quickest route to an indigenous anti-ship missile, with a range exceeding the limitations of the Missile Technology Control Regime in the same vein as the United States' UGM/RGM-109B (TAS-M) Tomahawk.

It has already provided the basis of further developments. The updated Babur II was tested in December. The sub-launched Babur III, was successfully tested in January, enabling Pakistan to establish a second-strike capability.

Though the C-602 reportedly cruises at a height of 30 meters, test-area altitude for today’s test was restricted to 1,500 meters — more akin to the higher cruise altitude of the Babur.

A Navy spokesman was asked to comment on the missile’s identity, but there was no reply by press time.

Riaz Haq said...

#Turkey, #Pakistan sign Turkish warship, Pakistani training plane deals. http://reut.rs/2qSPaBm via @Reuters

Turkey and Pakistan have signed a memorandum of understanding for the sale of four Turkish made corvette warships and 52 Pakistan-made training planes for Ankara's armed forces, Turkey's defense industry undersecretariat said on Wednesday.

Karachi Shipyard (KS&EW) will buy four corvettes made under Turkey's MILGEM warship program, aimed at designing and building locally a fleet of multipurpose corvettes and frigates that will replace older ships.

The Turkish defense undersecretariat said the final deal was expected to be signed on June 30. The statement did not provide any financial details.

Turkey will buy 52 Super Mushshak training planes from Pakistan Aeronautical Complex - Kamra, to replace the T-41 and SF-260 planes currently in use, a statement by Ankara's defense undersecretariat said.

This would be the first time a NATO country has used Super Mushshak planes, the statement added.

Two warships built under the MILGEM project so far, named TCG Heybeliada and TCG Buyukada, were delivered to the Turkish navy in 2011 and 2013. Construction is ongoing for TCG Burgazada and TCG Kinaliada, which are expected to start active duty in 2018 and 2020, respectively.