Friday, January 17, 2014

Rising Incomes Driving Meat Consumption in Developing Countries

A recent study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and Nature magazine reports that Pakistanis are among the most carnivorous people in the world.

The scientists conducting the study  used "trophic levels" to place people in the food chain. The trophic system puts algae which makes its own food at level 1. Rabbits that eat plants are level 2 and foxes that eat herbivores are 3. Cod, which eats other fish, is level four, and top predators, such as polar bears and orcas, are up at 5.5 - the highest on the scale.
Trophic Levels Map Source: Nature Magazine
After studying the eating habits of 176 countries, the authors found that average human being is at 2.21 trophic level. It put Pakistanis at 2.4, the same trophic level as Europeans and Americans. China and India are at 2.1 and 2.2 respectively.

Source: Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences


The countries with the highest trophic levels (most carnivorous people) include Mongolia, Sweden and Finland, which have levels of 2.5, and the whole of Western Europe, USA, Australia, Argentina, Sudan, Mauritania, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and Turkmenistan, which all have a level of 2.4.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) also published recent report on the subject of meat consumption. It found that meat consumption in developing countries is increasing with rising incomes. USDA projects an average 2.4 percent annual increase in developing countries compared with 0.9 percent in developed countries. Per capita poultry meat consumption in developing countries is projected to rise 2.8 percent per year during 2013-22, much faster than that of pork (2.2 percent) and beef (1.9 percent).

Per Capita Meat Consumption and Income Source: USDA


India and China with the rising incomes of their billion-plus populations are expected to be the main drivers of the worldwide demand for meat and poultry.

Pakistan's goat meat consumption of 779,000 tons in 2011-12 ranks it among the top 3 in the world. 1.7 million tons of beef consumption in Pakistan is ranked  9th among beef consuming nations. In addition, 834,000 tons of poultry meat consumption puts it among world's top 20.

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2011-12
Along with rising meat consumption, there has also been a big surge in milk consumption with the ongoing livestock revolution in Pakistan. Pakistanis consumed nearly 39 million tons of milk in 2011-12, according to Economic Survey of Pakistan. This translates into 223 Kg of milk consumption per person which is about the same as the developed world's per capita milk consumption and more than twice that of neighboring India's 96 kg per capita.

Although meat consumption in Pakistan is rising, it still remains very low by world standards. At just 18 Kg per person, it's less than half of the world average of 42 Kg per capita meat consumption reported by the FAO.

Being mostly vegetarian, neighboring Indians consume only 3.2 Kg of meat per capita, less than one-fifth of Pakistan's 18 Kg. Daal (legumes or pulses) are popular in South Asia as a protein source.  Indians consume 11.68 Kg of daal per capita, about twice as much as Pakistan's 6.57 Kg.

Another ingredient popular in South Asian cuisine is vegetable oil.  It's an important source of fat and protein for a nutritious and tasty diet. Edible oil consumption soars during the holidays as hundreds of millions of people eat sweets and fried foods during the September-December festive season.   Pakistanis use about 20 Kg of oil, the per capita amount recommended by the World Health Organization, while Indians consume about 13 Kg per capita.

Celebratory occasions like Eid or Diwali push sugar consumption in South Asia. Pakistan's per capita sugar consumption is about 23 Kg while India's is about 20 Kg per person per year.

Although still below average relative to the world, per capita consumption of meat, milk and edible oil is rising with rising incomes and standards of living in both India and Pakistan. As the dietary habits change, it'll be important for policy makers and health and fitness professionals to watch the changes and help educate the people about healthy eating and its environmental impact.

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Pakistan Among Top Meat and Dairy Consuming Nations

Pakistan Leads South Asia in Value Added Agriculture

Livestock and Agribusiness Revolution in Pakistan

Pakistan's Rural Economy Showing Strength

Solving Pakistan's Sugar Crisis

Food, Clothing and Shelter in India and Pakistan 

Is India a Nutritional Weakling?

India Tops World Hunger Charts

9 comments:

Riaz Haq said...

Here's how two famous Indians see meat-loving Pakistan:

Sachin Tendulkar in TOI:

The senior cricketer further said he gorged on Pakistani food and had piled on a few kilos on his debut tour there.

"The first tour of Pakistan was a memorable one. I used to have a heavy breakfast which was keema paratha and then have a glass of lassi and then think of dinner. After practice sessions there was no lunch because it was heavy but also at the same time delicious. I wouldn't think of having lunch or snack in the afternoon. I was only 16 and I was growing," Tendulkar recalled.

"It was a phenomenal experience, because when I got back to Mumbai and got on the weighing scale I couldn't believe myself. But whenever we have been to Pakistan, the food has been delicious. It is tasty and I have to be careful for putting on weight," he said.

Hindol Sengupta in The Hindu:

Yes, that's right. The meat. There always, always seems to be meat in every meal, everywhere in Pakistan. Every where you go, everyone you know is eating meat. From India, with its profusion of vegetarian food, it seems like a glimpse of the other world. The bazaars of Lahore are full of meat of every type and form and shape and size and in Karachi, I have eaten some of the tastiest rolls ever. For a Bengali committed to his non-vegetarianism, this is paradise regained. Also, the quality of meat always seems better, fresher, fatter, more succulent, more seductive, and somehow more tantalizingly carnal in Pakistan. I have a curious relationship with meat in Pakistan. It always inevitably makes me ill but I cannot seem to stop eating it. From the halimto the payato the nihari, it is always irresistible and sends shock shivers to the body unaccustomed to such rich food. How the Pakistanis eat such food day after day is an eternal mystery but truly you have not eaten well until you have eaten in Lahore!


http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-11-02/top-stories/34877619_1_street-food-india-and-pakistan-ice-cream

http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/columns/hindol_sengupta/article429776.ece

Riaz Haq said...

The U.S. Department of Agriculture has approved Phase Two of the American Soybean Association’s (ASA) World Initiative for Soy in Human Health (WISHH) FEEDing Pakistan program to further develop Pakistan’s aquaculture sector and its use of feeds made from U.S. soy.

The additional one-year of funding allows WISHH to create even more demand for soy-based feeds, building upon the success of local fish farmers as well as private investment by the Pakistani feed industry.

“USDA support of FEEDing Pakistan boosts the growing soy-based feed industry in Pakistan, which has the sixth largest population in the world,” said WISHH Vice Chairman Lucas Heinen, a Kansas soybean grower. “WISHH’s strategy complements the U.S. Soybean Export Council’s work as Pakistan’s poultry industry now buys U.S. soybean meal and processing industry leaders import U.S. soybeans.”

Launched in 2011, WISHH’s FEEDing Pakistan has assisted approximately 2,000 Pakistani fish farmers and helped increase the market value of fish produced—tilapia—from zero at the beginning of the project to an estimated 450 mill rupees ($4.5 million USD) in 2014.

Photo: ASA WISHH’s FEEDing Pakistan project develops Pakistan’s aquaculture sector and its use of feeds made with soy. A 2013 U.S. Department of Agriculture Report projected a 525 percent increase in aquaculture production in Pakistan and a complementary increase in the demand for fish feed between 2012 and 2022.

FEEDing Pakistan tilapia averaged 600 grams per fish–double the weight of traditional Pakistan fish harvests.

“Pakistani fish farmers had never seen such results,” said R.S.N. Janjua, who leads the project as ASA/WISHH Country Representative. “The tilapia received a premium in the local market place and increased enthusiasm for further development of Pakistan’s aquaculture industry with soy-based fish feeds.

“Phase One of FEEDING Pakistan also demonstrated that Pakistan’s fish farmers, academics, private sector, and government officials are ready to help aquaculture fill the protein gap in Pakistan where 44 percent of children under the age of five experience stunting,” Janjua added.

The Kansas Soybean Commission supported WISHH’s Phase One work in Pakistan. Kansas State University conducted training courses on fish feed manufacturing and best management practices. A trainee and co-owner of a Pakistani company learned about potential for growth in the aquaculture industry. As a result, he ordered feed extrusion equipment from Extru-Tech International of Sabetha, Kansas and formally inaugurated Pakistan’s first extruder for the production of floating fish feed in July 2013. USDA’s funding allowed WISHH to ship 25 metric tons of U.S. hi-protein soybean meal, which jump-started the floating fish feed manufacturing.

A 2013 USDA Global Agricultural Information Network report projected a 525 percent increase in aquaculture production in Pakistan and a complementary increase in the demand for fish feed. Aquaculture production would increase from 120,000 tons in 2012 to 750,000 tons in 2022. The demand for fish feed will increase from 210,000 tons to 1.3 million tons, and soybean meal demand from 42,000 tons to 260,000 tons.

Phase Two will allow WISHH to provide additional training to improve feed management and increase feed production as well as feed demand, largely in Punjab and Sindh. Training will reach both large-holder farmers with 20-200 acres of ponds as well as farmers with 1-2 acres. WISHH will also assist the private sector that is interested in expanding feed manufacturing.

http://m.kmaland.com/ag/usda-funds-phase-of-asa-wishh-s-feeding-pakistan/article_ecc5cdb8-1511-11e5-9ddc-ab529a6ab095.html

Riaz Haq said...

OECD data on per capita meat consumption in Pakistan (12.5 Kg per person)

Pork 0 (World 12.6 Kg)

Goat 2.1 Kg (1.7 Kg)

Poultry 4.2 Kg (13.2 Kg)

Beef & Veal 6.2 Kg (6.5Kg)


https://data.oecd.org/agroutput/meat-consumption.htm

https://twitter.com/conradhackett/status/718204833375895552

Riaz Haq said...

An Overview of Poultry Industry in Pakistan by J. HUSSAIN, RABBANI, S. ASLAM and H.A. AHMAD:


Pakistan industry still attained 127% growth in the total number of birds produced, 126% growth in the total meat production and 71%growth in terms of total eggs produced between 2000 and 2010 (GOP, 2013). The reason behind this extraordinary growth is the existence of the strong base of this industry inPakistan. Presently the cheapest available sources of animal protein in Pakistan are the eggs and meat from the poultry sector (PPA, 2013a).


Despite showing excellent potential and growth over the years, per capita availability of poultry meat in Pakistan is still 5 kg and 51 eggs per year, compared to developed countries where these figures are 41 kg meat and 300 eggs (PPA, 2013b). According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the average daily requirement for animal protein is 27 g per person, whereas in Pakistan it is only 17 g (Memon, 2012). Out of this 17 g,the share of proteins from poultry is just 5 g, causing a gap of 10 g per person per day. If calculated on an annual basis, bearing in mind the present population of Pakistan (180million), this gap is 788,000 t of meat. In the national meat pool the share of beef and mutton is either constant or decreasing steadily and the poultry sector has the potential tofill this gap


Poultry production has increased its share steadily in the total meat pool of the country(Figure 5). In 1971, the market share of beef was 61%, mutton was 37%, and poultry meat a mere 2-2.5% (GOP, 2013). In 2010 the market share of poultry meat had increased to 25%, whereas beef and mutton had reduced to 55% and 20%respectively (GOP, 2013). It was this dynamic increase in the overall magnitude of poultry sector that decreased the gap between the supply and demand of animal proteins in Pakistan, and also assisted in stabilising beef and mutton prices, making meat affordable to most of the Pakistani population.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285673061_An_overview_of_poultry_industry_in_Pakistan

Riaz Haq said...

Pulse (Daal) crops in Pakistan:
Understanding the importance of pulses United Nations ‘s(UN) 68th General Assembly declared “2016” as “International Year of Pulses”.
Pulses are cultivated all over the world but in Pakistan it is being cultivated on 5% of total cultivated area of crops and chickpea,black gram,mung bean.pigeon pea, mash,masoor and few others are grown.
In Pakistan pulses are grown on 1.5 million hectors of land. Chickpea play a vital role in country’s pulses production as it is cultivated on 73% of the total area occupied by pulses cultivation and its contribution to the total pulses production is 76% while mash and masoor consumes 2%( each )of
area under pulses cultivation and share 1.4% in total pulses production.
Mung Bean an easily digestible item is one of the important pulse crop of Pakistan, it is mainly grown in southern parts of Punjab and Sindh. Punjab alone provides 88% area for its cultivation and share 85% in its total production in the country.
On an average every Pakistani consumes 6-7 kg of pulses annually which shows the interest of Pakistani people in pulses which is increasing demand and supply gap as Pakistan doesn’t have enough domestic production to meet the requirement of its country men, its domestic production of pulses was 0.45 million tonnes in 2014 which was 0.75 million tonns in 2013 much lower than demand.
Pakistan spent $139.096 million of foreign exchange in the fiscal year 2010-2011 to meet the domestic requirements of pulses by importing 628.508 thousand tonnes of pulses. 444.7776 thousand tonnes were imported during 2009-2010 according to available reports, these reports show increasing import trend as country spent $224.135 million in July2014-january 2015 and imported 370,181 metric tonns compared to $165.160 million in July2013-January2014 and imported volume of 262,509 metric tonnes, Country’s import volume of pulses was raised by 32.41 % as 63,130 metric tonnes were imported in January 2015 compared to 47,679 metric tonnes in same period of 2014.
Pakistan is mainly depended on Canada,Australia,Burma,Tanzania,Euthiopia to full fill the domestic requirement of pulses which is about 0.6 metric tonnes every year.
Major challenges faced by pulses sector in Pakistan are, farmers get lower prices for their outputs due to this farmers are switching to another crops for their bread and butter, role of middle men, lack of modern technology, machinery ,improper harvesting, improper sowing,delay or early sowing of seeds, non certified seeds, less resistant varieties of pulses, lack of interest of Government or improper Government policies and lack of research on pulses to increase productions. if work is done on these issues Pakistan will be able to produce and full fill domestic needs and it will also create more employment opportunities where other cash crops cant be grown.
http://www.agricorner.com/status-of-pulses-crops-in-pakistan/

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistanis to sacrifice over 10 million animals this Eid

https://www.geo.tv/latest/114495-Pakistanis-to-sacrifice-over-10-million-animals-this-Eid

Muslims in Pakistan celebrating Eid-ul-Azha will sacrifice over 10 million animals this year, officials at the Tanners' Association said on Monday.

According to Gulzar Feroz, the central chairman at the Tanners' Association, more than 2.7 million cows/bulls, four million goats, 800,000 lambs, and up to 30,000 camels will be sacrificed this year.

He said that the hides of cows/bulls were expected to fetch a price of Rs1,600 in the market, while goat hides would fetch a market price of Rs250 each.

He said that hides of sacrificial animals fetched a total of Rs8 billion last Eid, but due to fall in prices this year, hides of sacrificial animals are expected to fetch around Rs7 billion this year.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Fauji #Meat begins commercial operations to export 100 tons of #halal meat daily

http://tribune.com.pk/story/1296723/fauji-fertilizer-bin-qasim-limited-commences-commercial-operation-meat-export-plant/

KARACHI: Fauji Meat Limited – a subsidiary of Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim Limited (FFBL) – officially commenced commercial operations of its meat processing and export business on Monday.

FFBL, Group GM Finance/CEO Syed Aamir Ahsan, said the firm kick started the operations in April 2016 and booked sales revenue close to an estimate of Rs1 billion in the first nine months (April-December 2016).

“The revenue would touch Rs16-20 billion in the next 1-2 years,” Ahsan told The Express Tribune on the sidelines of inaugural ceremony of the abattoir in Bin Qasim, Karachi.

This is one of the world’s largest meat processing and exporting plant established at a cost of $75 million.

The abattoir and meat processing facility has a daily production capacity of 100 tons of meat (85 tons of beef and 15 tons of mutton) in frozen and chilled categories for worldwide export.

“You, perhaps, may not find such a big plant across the world,” said Ahsan. “This year {2017}, we will fully utilise the installed capacity,” he said.

“Our quality and processing is not less than anyone in the world,” he said. He said FML would also introduce its quality products at local markets.

FFBL’s share price increased 1.24%, or Rs0.67, and closed at Rs54.29 with 5.39 million shares changing hands at the Pakistan Stock Exchange on Monday. The increase in price was attributed to restoration of subsidy on fertilisers.

Present, future exports

The plant is currently serving the GCC region (Kuwait and UAE) and China, and is in the process of obtaining formal approval for export of meat to Russia, MENA region and Central Asia.

Iran has given approval, while approvals from Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Russia are in the pipeline. “We are confident that all these countries would approve during the years 2017-2018,” he said.

“The volume of sales of halal meat stands at $300 billion. Pakistan’s share in this is almost nil,” he said.

According to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics’ latest data, the export of meat and meat preparations dropped 19% in dollar denomination to $87.56 million during July-November 2016 from $108.10 million in the same period last year.

It decreased 25.19% quantity-wise to 23,107 tons in the said five months.

Pakistan has been endowed with a large livestock population which includes cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat. It has a herd size of more than 60 million animals; one of the largest in the world.

Responding to a question, Ahsan said, production of 100-tons-a-day is a single-shift installed capacity. With the addition of another shift, the capacity can be doubled at a nominal investment.

The firm has engaged dozens of farmers to make quality breed available on a consistent and scientific basis.

Fauji Foundation Group Chairman Khalid Nawaz said the group started off with $0.2 million and now its annual turnover exceeds $1.5 billion, making it one of the largest business conglomerates in the country with interests in more than 18 industries and having a diverse investment portfolio.

Riaz Haq said...

BBC News - #India #meat crackdown leaves butchers concerned after #BJP sweep in #upelections2017 #Modi

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-39364448#

Several slaughterhouses and meat shops have been shut in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh after the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) comprehensively won state assembly elections in India's most populous state.
The new chief minister, Yogi Adityanath, is a strong supporter of laws protecting cows, and has publicly opposed beef consumption. The slaughter of cows and consumption of beef is considered taboo by India's majority Hindu population - and is illegal in most Indian states including Uttar Pradesh.
Reports say that immediately after taking office, one of his first acts was to instruct police officials to crack down on "illegal" slaughterhouses in the state. Locals allege however, that many of them did not kill cows, but animals like goat and buffalo, the slaughter of which is legal.
Most of the butcher shops and slaughter houses in Uttar Pradesh are owned and run by Muslims who make up 18% of the state's population.
Cattle slaughter ban hits Indian farmers
Why beef ban in Indian state undermines secularism
Modi breaks silence on 'beef' lynching
The narrow, dingy lanes of Ghaziabad's Islam Nagar house nearly 100 meat shops, but now all of them are shuttered.
Both the owners and workers of the shop are sitting at home, unsure about how they will feed their families in the days and weeks to come.
'How will we survive?'
This is the only work they have known for decades and now with the government cracking down on meat shops, they are in a fix.
Locals told the BBC that policemen and administration officials swooped in early Tuesday morning.
"This is an injustice. They came on Tuesday morning, took away all our meat and even took a sample from a dead, sliced buffalo. What was the need for that? They might allege later that it was a dead cow," said Mohammed Yasin who owns four meat shops in the area.
"There was no prior notice. We have suffered financial losses. How will we survive?" he asks.
"I was told to stop cooking meat, as the government has changed," added Mohammed Azam, whose famous Baghdad Biryani Corner restaurant was also shut.
But officials deny that there has been a change.

Atul Kumar, a senior official in the state government, told the BBC that the raid was carried out after the officials received a tip that a buffalo was being butchered illegally at someone's home.
"This is illegal. There has to be an approved, designated area for slaughter." he told the BBC, adding that the decision to shut illicit butcher shops was taken following a state government order.
Locals admit that a large number of meat shops in the area did not have the mandatory licenses, but they allege that their efforts to secure them have been ignored for years.
Some complained of discrimination, alleging that meat shops run by lower caste Hindus in adjacent areas had not been touched. But when the BBC went there to check, we found that those shops had been closed too.
Mr Kumar said the administration was mulling a single window system to address concerns about granting licenses.

Riaz Haq said...

THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE > BUSINESS
Pakistan becomes third-largest importer of cooking oil

https://tribune.com.pk/story/1302877/high-consumption-pakistan-becomes-third-largest-importer-cooking-oil/

KARACHI: Pakistan has become the third largest importer of cooking oil after China and India, a statement said on Saturday.

“The import of crude and refined cooking oil has increased to 2.6 million tons per annum in Pakistan,” Westbury Group Chief Executive Rasheed Jan Mohammad said at a one-day conference on edible oil.

Balance of payments: Current account deficit widens 92%

Pakistan also imports 2.2 million tons oil seeds every year, he said.

Imports help the country meet around 75% of its domestic needs. The remaining need is met through locally produced banola and mustard oils.

Pakistan imports crude and refined cooking oils (palm and palm olein) mainly from Malaysia and Indonesia and brings in soybean oil from North America and Brazil.

Jan Mohammad said approximately 30% of the import bill is comprised of taxes that traders pay at Pakistan’s sea ports. “The government should rationalise the taxes,” he said.

Dr James Fry, Chairman of LMC International, a research institute of the UK, said fluctuation in production, demand and price of edible oils has a direct link with crude fuel oils in the world. “The production and supply of palm oil would increase in 2017,” he projected.

The statement issued by Pakistan Edible Oil Conference (PEOC) quoted speakers at the conference, saying that Pakistan needs to set up one more import terminal at sea ports to keep the flow of goods smooth.

Apparel sector: Govt urged to withdraw duty on cotton yarn import

They said that Pakistan has so far invested Rs50 billion in import, processing and storage industries of edible oil. They estimated a similar quantum of investment in the years to come. Trade Development Authority of Pakistan Chief Executive SM Muneer said revival of the local economy, increased disposable income, surging demand for cooking oil and rising population have created opportunities for more investment in the edible oil industry in Pakistan.

Zubair Tufail, President, Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry, said that per-capita consumption of cooking oil in Pakistan is among the highest in the world.

He said Malaysia and Indonesia remained two big sources of import of the oil into the Pakistan. He asked Malaysia and Indonesia to increase investment in the edible oil industry in Pakistan, as they can take benefit of transit trade to Afghanistan and Central Asian countries via Pakistan.

Outstanding bills: Disruption in oil supplies to power plants feared

Sheikh Amjad Rafique, a speaker at the conference, said Malaysia has imposed taxes on export of oil to Pakistan. “This is a negation of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Pakistan and Malaysia,” he said.

He said the Pakistani government needs to engage with Malaysia to remove this anomaly and exploit full benefit of the agreement in place.